The following are all characteristics of target costing except

Target costing is an approach to determine a product's life-cycle cost which should be sufficient to develop specified functionality and quality, while ensuring its desired profit. It involves setting a target cost by subtracting a desired profit margin from a competitive market price. Target costing decomposes the target cost from product level to component level. Through this decomposition, target costing spreads the competitive pressure faced by the company to product's designers and suppliers.

Target costing consists of cost planning in the design phase of production as well as cost control throughout the resulting product life cycle. The cardinal rule of target costing is to never exceed the target cost. However, the focus of target costing is not to minimize costs, but to achieve a desired level of cost reduction determined by the target costing process.

The fundamental objective of target costing is to manage the business to be profitable in a highly competitive marketplace. In effect, target costing is a proactive cost planning, cost managementand cost reduction practice whereby costs are planned and managed out of a product and business early in the design and development cycle, rather than during the later stages of product development and production. Target costing was developed independently in both USA and Japan in different time periods.

Target costing

Although the ideas of target costing were also applied by a number of other American companies including BoeingCaterpillarNorthern Telecomfew of them apply target costing as comprehensively and intensively as top Japanese companies such as NissanToyotaNippondenso.

It did not receive global attention until late s to s when some authors such as Monden[6] Sakurai[7] Tanaka[8] and Cooper [9] described the way that Japanese companies applied target costing to thrive in their business IMA With superior implementation systems, Japanese manufacturers are more successful than the American companies in developing target costing.

The process of target costing can be divided into three sections: the first section involves in market-driven target costing, which focuses on studying market conditions to identify a product's allowable cost in order to meet the company's long-term profit at expected selling price; the second section involves performing cost reduction strategies with the product designer's effort and creativity to identify the product-level target cost; the third section is component-level target cost which decomposes the production cost to functional and component levels to transmit cost responsibility to suppliers.

Market driven target costing is the first section in the target costing process which focuses on studying market conditions and determining the company's profit margin in order to identify the allowable cost of a product. Market driven costing can go through 5 steps including: establish company's long-term sales and profit objective; develop the mix of products; identify target selling price for each product; identify profit margin for each product; and calculate allowable cost of each product.

Company's long-term sales and profit objectives are developed from an extensive analysis of relevant information relating to customers, market and products. Only realistic plans are accepted to proceed to the next step.

Product mix is designed carefully to ensure that it satisfies many customers, but also does not contain too many products to confuse customers. Company may use simulation to explore the impact of overall profit objective to different product mixes and determine the most feasible product mix.

Target selling price, target profit margin and allowable cost are identified for each product. Target selling price need to consider to the expected market condition at the time launching the product.

Internal factors such as product's functionality and profit objective, and external factors such as company's image or expected price of competitive products will influence target selling price.

Company's long-term profit plan and life-cycle cost are considered when determining target profit margin. Firms might set up target profit margin based on either actual profit margin of previous products or target profit margin of product line. Simulation for overall group profitability can help to make sure achieving group target. Subtracting target profit margin from target selling price results in allowable cost for each product.

Allowable cost is the cost that can spend on the product to ensure meeting profit target if selling it at target price. It is the signal about the magnitude of cost saving that team need to achieve.

Following the completion of market-driven costing, the next task of the target costing process is product-level target costing. Product-level target costing concentrates on designing products that satisfy the company's customers at the allowable cost.The upcoming discussion will update you about the difference between traditional costing and target costing.

Traditionally, manufacturers would make use of the cost-plus approach to estimate the product price. This will be followed by the design of the product. Vendors will then be contacted to identify the total costs of the components which are required by the design and engineering departments.

Finally, cost components are summed up and a selling price is set based on the costs. If the management and the marketing department think that the price and cost are too high, the product design and engineering process will be repeated till an acceptable cost is reached, after which, production will begin.

Subtracting the desired profit margin set by the management from the predicted selling price, maximum target cost is arrived at.

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This target cost is then compared to an expected product cost and if it is higher than the expected product cost, the company has several options. This is carried out by all the members of the planning team the suppliers, design, engineering, and production and marketing department who will investigate the need and cost of each component. All the members will work together instead of going through various departments sequentially to reduce cost.

When the target cost is reached, standards can be set and product will then enter the manufacturing phase. Secondly, the management might consider accepting a less-than-desired profit margin. This will depend on the numerical difference between expected cost and target cost.

If the target cost is slightly higher than the expected cost, a slightly lower profit margin will be feasible.

the following are all characteristics of target costing except

However, if the difference is too great and there is no way for the company to earn the profit margin that it desires, its third alternative would be to abandon that particular product.

In short, target costing can be viewed as a system of profit planning and cost management that is customer focused, price led, design centered and cross functional.

In brief the use of target costing forces managers to change their way of thinking with regard to the relationship among cost, selling price and profitability. The traditional mindset has been that a product is developed, production cost is identified and measured, a selling price is set, and either profits or losses will result.

However, in target costing, a product is developed, a selling price and desired profit are determined and maximum allowable cost is derived. This makes cost dependent on selling prices.Target costing is a system under which a company plans in advance for the price pointsproduct costs, and margins that it wants to achieve for a new product. If it cannot manufacture a product at these planned levels, then it cancels the design project entirely.

With target costing, a management team has a powerful tool for continually monitoring products from the moment they enter the design phase and onward throughout their product life cycles. It is considered one of the most important tools for achieving consistent profitability in a manufacturing environment. Conduct research. The first step is to review the marketplace in which the company wants to sell products.

The design team needs to determine the set of product features that customers are most likely to buy, and the amount they will pay for those features. The team must learn about the perceived value of individual features, in case they later need to determine what impact there will be on the product price if they drop one or more features.

It may be necessary to later drop a product feature if the team decides that it cannot provide the feature while still meeting its target cost. At the end of this process, the team has a good idea of the target price at which it can sell the proposed product with a certain set of features, and how it must alter the price if it drops some features from the product. Calculate maximum cost. The company provides the design team with a mandated gross margin that the proposed product must earn.

By subtracting the mandated gross margin from the projected product price, the team can easily determine the maximum target cost that the product must achieve before it can be allowed into production. Engineer the product. The engineers and procurement personnel on the team now take the leading role in creating the product.

The procurement staff is particularly important if the product has a high proportion of purchased parts; they must determine component pricing based on the necessary quality, delivery, and quantity levels expected for the product.

They may also be involved in outsourcing parts, if this results in lower costs.

Festo - Successful target costing with Teamcenter product cost management

The engineers must design the product to meet the cost target, which will likely include a number of design iterations to see which combination of revised features and design considerations results in the lowest cost. Ongoing activities.

Once a product design is finalized and approved, the team is reconstituted to include fewer designers and more industrial engineers. The team now enters into a new phase of reducing production costs, which continues for the life of the product. For example, cost reductions may come from waste reductions in production known as kaizen costingor from planned supplier cost reductions.

These ongoing cost reductions yield enough additional gross margin for the company to further reduce the price of the product over time, in response to increases in the level of competition. The design team uses one of the following approaches to more tightly focus its cost reduction efforts:. Tied to components. The design team allocates the cost reduction goal among the various product components.

This approach tends to result in incremental cost reductions to the same components that were used in the last iteration of the product. This approach is commonly used when a company is simply trying to refresh an existing product with a new version, and wants to retain the same underlying product structure. The cost reductions achieved through this approach tend to be relatively low, but also result in a high rate of product success, as well as a fairly short design period.

Tied to features. The product team allocates the cost reduction goal among various product features, which focuses attention away from any product designs that may have been inherited from the preceding model. This approach tends to achieve more radical cost reductions and design changesbut also requires more time to design, and also runs a greater risk of product failure or at least greater warranty costs.

Of these methods, companies are more likely to use the first approach if they are looking for a routine upgrade to an existing product, and the second approach if they want to achieve a significant cost reduction or break away from the existing design.Learning Objective of the Article:.

Target Costing: Definition, Objectives and Advantages

In traditional costing system it is presumed that a product has already been developed, has been costed, and is ready to be marketed as soon as a price is set. In many cases, the sequence of events is just the reverse.

That is, the company already knows what price should be charged, and the problem is to develop a product that can be marketed profitably at the desired price. Even in this situation, where the normal sequence of events is reversed, cost is still a crucial factor. The company can use an approach called target costing. Target costing is the process of determining the maximum allowable cost for a new product and then developing a prototype that can be profitably made for that maximum target cost figure.

Following formula or equation further explains this concept:. The product development team is then given the responsibility of designing the product so that it can be made for no more than the target cost. Following set of activities further explains the concept of target costing technique:.

The target costing approach was developed in recognition of two important characteristics of markets and costs. The first is that many companies have less control over price than they would like to think. The market i.

Difference between Traditional Costing and Target Costing

Therefore, the anticipated market price is taken as a given in target costing. The second observation is that most of the cost of a product is determined in the design stage. Once a product has been designed and has gone into production, not much can be done to significantly reduce its cost.

Most of the opportunities to reduce cost come from designing the product so that it is simple to make, uses inexpensive parts, and is robust and reliable. If the company has little control over market price and little control over cost once the product has gone into production, then it follows that the major opportunities for affecting profit come in the design stage where valuable features that customers are willing to pay for can be added and where most of the costs are really determined.

So that it is where the effort is concentrated—in designing and developing the product. The difference between target costing and other approaches to product development is profound. Instead of designing the product and then finding out how much it costs, the target cost is set first and then the product is designed so that the target cost is attained.To login with Google, please enable popups.

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Log in. Get started today! Cohe Midterm. Edit a Copy. Study these flashcards. Lauren F. Which of the following statements about fee-for-service reimbursement is incorrect? Payment may be based on the number of covered lives. The balance sheet is affected by changes in the.

In Januarywhen the salaries were paid, the effect of the transaction was to:. True or False: Providers accepting capitated contracts need to receive a per member per month premium sufficient to cover medical costs, administrative costs, and a reserve to protect against medical losses that exceed actuarial estimates.

True or False: Pricing analysis should only consider the most likely scenario using the best available estimates of input variables such as utilization and variable costs. True or False: The price set for a service could affect the volume of that service; therefore, pricing decisions should consider the effects of both prices and volumes on profits. Assume a governmental payer reimburses Mercy Hospital at a rate that covers only 60 percent of the cost of providing one inpatient day.The following are the main steps or stages involved in the target costing process.

Conducting Market Research : The company should determine the customer wants precisely through conducting marketing research. A new product can be designed or make changes in the existing product on the basis of the customers expectations and perceptions.

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Identify the Nature of Market : The market information can be collected in such a way that what type of products are available in the market, the level of competition prevailing, the number of competitors and the price at which the existing products are available.

Besides, the company should find out the affordable price of the customers. If so, the target costing is followed. Translation of Customers Requirements into Product Features : The preference of one customer differs from another.

the following are all characteristics of target costing except

These preferences are collectively called as customers requirements. Now, the bundle of preferences are bringing into a tangible thing i. Development of a Product Design : By considering the engineering analysis of market forces, customer needs, relevant technology, competitors models, product configuration and performance features, design alternatives, process capabilities, maintenance and service requirements etc. Such a product design assures a targeted profit and target cost for each component in total.

Determine the Price, Margin and Cost : Target selling price is determined on the basis of market survey, at which the product can be sold.

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The standard margin is also included in the target selling price. If so, it is possible to determine the target cost. Conducting Value Engineering Process : The company can conduct value engineering process to reach target cost. It is a well known fact that the difference between target selling price and the target profit is target cost.

the following are all characteristics of target costing except

The target selling price cannot be changed at any cost; Hence, it is a duty on the part of company is that takes necessary steps to reach the target cost. Such a production ensures all product performances, target cost and target profit margin also. The trial production comes to an end whenever the product design matches the target cost. Approval of Top Management : A detail report is presented before the top management for getting approval.

The report contains the production process, elements of cost involved with the level of costs to be incurred and design of the specified product. A formal approval is given for starting commercial production.

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Maintenance of Accounts : A separate accounting records are to be maintained for each product design. It is possible to verify whether the total expenses exceed the target cost. If the expenses are not controllable at any time, the product design will be changed. Hence, the maintenance of separate set of books are highly required under target costing process.Question 1. Accurate cost estimates are required by strategic management for all except: Points : 2.

Question 2. The use of a relationship of total factory overhead to direct labor hours is said to be valid only within the relevant range, which means: Points : 2.

Question 5. High operating leverage represents increased risk associated with relatively: Points : 2. Question 6.

The difference between sales price per unit and variable cost per unit is the: Points : 2. Question 7. Income taxes have the following effect on the breakeven point calculation: Points : 2. They may increase or decrease the breakeven point, depending on the cost structure of the organization. Question A budgeting system that has, in effect, a budget for a set number of periods i.

The act of encouraging non-value-adding actions on the part of management in order to improve indicated performance is referred to as: Points : 2. All of the following represent alternative approaches to the traditional budget-preparation process except which one? Points : 2. Thompson Refrigerators Inc. To do so, the company must forecast its total overhead cost. The actual machine hours and total overhead cost are presented below for the past six months. Brownsville Novelty Store prepared the following budget information for the month of May:.

The store had 1, gallons on hand at the beginning of March, and expects to have 1, gallons on hand at the end of March. What is the budgeted number of gallons to be sold during March? Hi there!

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Click one of our representatives below and we will get back to you as soon as possible. Accurate cost estimates are required by strategic management for all except Posted by admin. Question Question 1.

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